Category Archives: Microsoft Windows

The Home Lab

Automated Deployment in the HomeLab- Part 1

I’m commencing a project with my HomeLab- I’m going to build a system whereby I can produce custom mini-lab environments by means of a script. There are off the shelf solutions to do this (see AutoLab as an example) but if I build this myself I get something tailored exactly to my needs (and available resources) and hopefully learn something along the way- which is what the HomeLab is all about really. This is the first post in what should develop into a series showing how I work through the process to create my automation system.

 

The Aims

a.k.a. what I want to achieve

  • ExampleMiniLabThe ability to run a script to deploy a predefined lab environment. For example running “Build-Project-Lab-One.ps1” makes 3 Windows Server VMs, connected on a private switch, with one running AD/DNS/DHCP roles, one acting as a Gateway, and one ready for whatever experiment I throw at it
  • The ability to quickly and easily modify a copy of that script to produce a lab with a different configuration. Then I can have a script that builds me a WDS platform, or another one that produces a SCOM test environment. I can use this library to quickly rebuild, or build a copy of, and of my environments within the HomeLab
  • This script should also create a second script for decommissioning  /destroying the lab environment when I’ve finished.
  • Whilst perhaps not meeting full “production” standards, the scripts should be at least in a state whereby I can post them online and not have to hide in a cave for the next decade whilst they get laughed at.

 

The Resources

a.k.a. what I have to play with

  • One Intel NUC host running vSphere ESXi 6 providing some compute, memory, storageIntel NUC
  • One VMUG Advantage Subscription complete with VMware EVAL Experience licensing- this provides VMware vCenter amongst other things.
  • One Microsoft DreamSpark Subscription and Microsoft Evaluation Licensing (see “Microsoft Licensing” on the Open Homelab Project for details on how to get these)
  • Me with my knowledge of Windows, vSphere, PowerShell, PowerCLI, and how to Google for stuff.
  • The community who not only kindly put content up on the internet for me to Google for but also are there for me to tweet, slack, and (shock, horror) talk to when I encounter problems or lose direction.

 

The Plan

a.k.a. How I’m hoping to achieve those aims with those resources.

To do all this I’m starting out by preparing a vSphere template of Windows Server 2012R2. I can deploy this- with customisations- using PowerCLI to form the building blocks of the lab environment. Once I have Windows VMs deployed I need to be able to configure them- this is where PowerShell remoting will come in handy- I can deploy roles and features and do some basic configuration. I’ll put together a PowerShell function to do all that. This function can then be re-used in the script to deploy multiple VMs with different configurations. For example:

CreateVM "Server1" $TemplateName $CustomizationSpec "Web-Server"
CreateVM "Server2" $TemplateName $CustomizationSpec "WDS"

I’ll use PowerCLI to deploy a private network within the Hypervisor and connect the VMs to it. This method will also be used to configure the connections to the gateway -one NIC pointing at the private switch and one at the internet-facing vSwitch already in place.

Some more in-depth PowerShell (possibly also arranged into reusable functions) to do the in-depth configuration of the roles. For example, when the script completes I want the Active Directory to be up and running, the Gateway providing an internet connection to the VMs, the VMs getting IP addresses from the lab DHCP and domain-joined. Basically I want to be able to run the script, make a brew, and come back and find a fully configured system ready to go.

 

Coming Soon- Part 2, full of scripting goodness.


Advert:

Using Test-NetConnection to check connectivity

A regular “ping” command is great for checking if Host A can see Host B, but what if we want to go a bit deeper- for example check if a web server is contactable on port 80 and 443? The PowerShell cmdlet Test-NetConnection is a great tool for doing this.

It’s become a key part of my troubleshooting toolkit- is the server contactable? Is there a firewall blocking the traffic? Is the web server service running? Test-NetConnection gives us a simple yes/no and some other useful information too.

Examples:

A working connection to port 80 (HTTP) on the server

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection -ComputerName Server1.MyDomain.Com -Port 80

ComputerName : Server1.MyDomain.Com
RemoteAddress : 10.0.0.34
RemotePort : 80
InterfaceAlias : Local Area Connection
SourceAddress : 10.0.0.17
PingSucceeded : True
PingReplyDetails (RTT) : 14 ms
TcpTestSucceeded : True

A failed connection to port 443 (HTTPS) on the same server

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection -ComputerName Server1.MyDomain.Com -Port 443
WARNING: TCP connect to Server1.MyDomain.Com:443 failed

ComputerName : Server1.MyDomain.Com
RemoteAddress : 10.0.0.34
RemotePort : 443
InterfaceAlias : Local Area Connection
SourceAddress : 10.0.0.17
PingSucceeded : True
PingReplyDetails (RTT) : 22 ms
TcpTestSucceeded : False

From this we can quickly and easily establish that whilst communication with the server is possible on port 80, traffic on port 443 is not being received- the first things I would check here would be that the webserver service is running correctly, configured to accept HTTPS traffic, and not being blocked the local firewall on the server.

ICYMI- A review of the year 2015

In case you missed it, here are some of the highlights of this blog from the last year.

Events

PowerShell and PowerCLI

Windows in General

Have a great 2016!

Microsoft Wireless Display Adapter

WP_20151218_12_14_37_Pro_crop

Display Screen With Wireless Display Adapter Connected

Last week a Microsoft Wireless Display Adapter turned up in the post. I’ve tried some wireless PC display connectors before, and the general rule seemed to be they were clunky, unreliable, and not that user friendly. This however, changes that. This is WiDi/ Miracast as it should be; easy to set up and simple to use.
Continue reading

Find Your Windows 10 Laptop

A new feature in Windows 10 is the ability to locate a missing device. Want to check you left your Surface at the Office and not on the train?- here’s how.

Step 1- Make sure you’ve updated to at least the November 2015 build of Windows 10 (v1511, 10586) using Windows Update.
Windows Update

Step 2- Go to “Settings” and choose “Find My Device” from the left hand menu. If it says “Find My Device is off” then click on the “Change” button and toggle the switch.
Find My Device Settings

Step 3- Visit http://account.microsoft.com/devices and sign in, you should see your device listed- click on the “Find my device” link.
Choose Device

Step 4- You can see where your device was last seen on a map.
Laptop on Map